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Challenges

Keyword golfing

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Many programming languages have the concept of keywords, special syntax items that are not just identifiers reserved by some library, but words reserved by the language itself.

The challenge is to write a minimal program for a language with such keywords, with as few characters as possible (code golf), while at the same time using every single keyword from the language.

The program need not do anything meaningful or perform any particular input/output, but it must compile cleanly with a conforming compiler and execute without run-time errors/crashes. Non-standard extensions and alternative non-standard keywords shall not be used.


Example, all keywords from the C language (as per the current C17 standard):

auto  
break  
case    
char  
const  
continue  
default  
do  
double  
else  
enum  
extern  
float  
for  
goto  
if  
inline  
int  
long  
register  
restrict  
return  
short  
signed  
sizeof  
static  
struct  
switch  
typedef  
union  
unsigned  
void  
volatile  
while  
_Alignas  
_Alignof  
_Atomic  
_Bool  
_Complex  
_Generic  
_Imaginary  
_Noreturn  
_Static_assert  
_Thread_local

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6 answers

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Python 3.7, 231 bytes

class C:pass
def g():
 async def f():return;yield;await[3for()in()];nonlocal f
if None:
 with lambda:3or 7and 8as q:del x
elif False:raise
else:assert 1is not 5
try:from x import*
except:global a
finally:9
while True:break;continue

Try it online!

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1 comment thread

10+ years of python and i somehow have never seen nonlocal before... TIL! (1 comment)
+2
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Scala 3, 553 bytes

package a
import E.Z as Z
import E.*
sealed trait T
open class Y{export E.Z as Q}
enum E[+A]derives CanEqual:
 case Z
end E
private abstract final class X extends AnyRef with T{protected opaque type T>:0=0
lazy val x:X#T=0
override def toString:String={var e=0
while false do try 0 catch{case e=>throw e}finally{}
0 match{case _@0|1=>if true then(for a<-""yield null)else 0}
return new String(super.toString)}}
given[A[-C]<:[B]=>>B](using 0):0=0
object O
extension(x:0)transparent inline infix def x(y:0)(implicit c:0)=(a:0)=>(b:0)?=>null
@main def m={}

Try it in Scastie!

This includes soft keywords. The official list of keywords is here.

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+2
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Ruby 3.1.0, 274 259 249 bytes

-10 bytes thanks to Paradox in the Ruby discord

BEGIN{END{alias module class
begin rescue
retry ensure end
if self
elsif defined?
for$.in true do
super while false until 0unless not __ENCODING__ and __LINE__ or nil
undef redo
next end
return def break =yield end
case when __FILE__ then else end}}

Attempt This Online!

41 total keywords that you can view here.

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+1
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Lua 5.4.4, 147 bytes

local function f()goto l::l::return end for _ in f do end if true and false then elseif""then else end repeat until""or not nil while""do break end

Try it online!

Check the list of keywords.

Thanks to @orthoplex for more shortening.

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1 comment thread

You can shorten your for-loop and save a few spaces on the numerical constants. Also, I don't think t... (8 comments)
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BQN, 107 bytes

A↩C←A⇐¯π{_𝕣_:@;/⊏𝕩.y?𝕗‿∊𝕊⟨𝕤,⍷⟩𝕏𝕎𝔽𝕨𝔾𝕘}∞˙⌜˘¨´˝`(•Js⎉⊔⎊⌽⌾⍉⚇«∘»·∧○∨⍋⍒↑↓≍∾˜⥊⋈↕⊢⍟⊣¬!|≡≢/≥⟜≠=⊸≥⊐⊘⊒◶⊑><⌊⌈√⁼⋆+-×÷)⋄#

BQN doesn't have keywords but primitive symbols are reserved. It's quite funny how this manages to compile.

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C (gcc), 358 bytes

static inline _Noreturn float f(union u);extern _Thread_local _Complex long double*restrict B;main(void){_Atomic register enum {A};typedef _Alignas(unsigned char)struct S;_Static_assert(_Alignof(_Bool),"_Imaginary");do goto a;while(sizeof B);if(1)for(auto volatile const signed short int i;;)continue;else switch(_Generic(0,default:0))case 0:a:break;return;}

Try it online!

Since nobody dared to take on C since this was posted, here's my attempt. It fulfils the "doesn't crash" criteria (though returns an unspecified value from the program).

Disclaimer: I couldn't get _Imaginary to work in gcc and clang doesn't even support complex numbers. Therefore I included the keyword inside a string literal, so that I won't get any unfair advantage against someone who can manage to get it working on some compiler.

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