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Given a string of Roman numerals, decide whether it forms a valid Roman number. If not, output the substring that proves this, from the list of 50 strings described below. Relevant fact This chal...

In this challenge you will take an Irish word and a personal pronoun and create the possessive pronoun construction combining the two. For example sé, madra becomes a mhadra. Translated to English...

$N$ vessels initially contain $3$ stones each. What is the probability of having at least $3$ stones in the first vessel after moving a uniformly random selection from the first vessel to the secon...

Suggest a word from a word list, given a string. Motivation Imagine typing a word one letter at a time, and seeing a suggested word after each letter is typed. At first the suggested word is simp...

Your mission for today, should you choose to accept it, is to write a simple 12-hour clock calculator. Your input will always be in the form of arg op arg, where op is either + or -, and arg is eit...

In this challenge, add 2 integers, but if both the integers are 2, output 5. Shortest code in each language wins! Example ungolfed program in Python 3.x def add(x, y): if x == 2 and y == 2: ...

Given a list of non-negative integers the function $f$ replaces every integer with the number of identical integers preceding it (not necessarily contiguously). So f [1,1,2,2,1,3,3] = [1,2,1,2,3,1...

You work in a kitchen which has a peculiar rule. When you mix something into a pot you must always add at least one new ingredient. So you can add pasta, oil, salt then pesto, but not pasta, pesto...

Goal Print the modular multiplicative inverse with a modulus of 65536 (or a higher exponent of 2) for odd numbers 1-97. Example output Print these values (or an extension of them): 1 43691 52...

This is a language specific challenge, for HTML only. Your answer is the content of a self contained HTML file, that when opened in a web browser gives a plain black page. Requirements The HTM...

Given 3 positive integers, indicate whether they are Borromean coprimes. Definition 3 positive integers are called Borromean coprimes if both of the following are true: Their greatest common d...

Find the shortest representation of an integer in generalised Roman numerals. Since there is more than one way to generalise, only the following definition applies to this challenge. Definition T...

You work at a beach. In the afternoon, the sun gets quite hot and beachgoers want to be shaded. So you put out umbrellas. When you put out umbrellas you want to shade the entire beach, with as few ...

Input is a number, you have to decide if it is part of the mandelbrot set or not, after at least 16 iterations. This is done by applying this formula: $z_n = z_{n-1}^2 + c$ repeatedly. $c$ is the ...

Given a single character, which is a valid Roman numeral, output its value. Values There are 7 valid single character Roman numerals, with the following values: Character Value I...

The Universal Crossword has a set of guidelines for crossword puzzle submissions. In this challenge we are going to be concerned with their rules for hidden word themes. A hidden word clue consis...

Inspired by this challenge. If anyone has any suggestions for a song title I could use for the challenge title then please leave a comment. Definition We define f(x) for a given integer as the su...

Your task is to write a program $p$ which outputs a string $s$ with the same length as $p$, where $s \neq p$. If I remove the $n$th byte from your program to get program $q$, then either $q$ outpu...

This is a fixed output challenge. It is similar to a standard Kolmogorov complexity challenge, except you get to choose your own fixed output. Given no input, output 55 fruits. You may choose any 5...

Simple challenge: Read a byte, swap bit 7 with 0, 6 with 1, 5 with 2 and 4 with 3 and then output the byte. For example the byte 0b1001'1100 would turn into 0b0011'1001. Rules: Shortest code wi...

Looping counter Create an infinite loop that outputs lines of asterisks, with each line containing one more asterisk. Instead of the asterisk, any printable, non-whitespace character can be used. ...

Given a chess board with some knights on it, say how many squares are neither attacked by a knight nor containing a knight. Input An 8 by 8 grid where each square is either a knight or empty T...

Recently I asked for tips on improving some code-golf of mine. The code was supposed to output every third value of the Fibonacci sequence starting with 2: 2,8,34,144,610,2584,10946,46368,196418,...

Many programming languages have the concept of keywords, special syntax items that are not just identifiers reserved by some library, but words reserved by the language itself. The challenge is to...

Given a string of printable ASCII characters, convert them all to lowercase, except not just the letters. ASCII characters that are letters have a bit in their binary representation that is 0 for ...

import requests import json import numpy as np import base64 import cv2 Replace this with the actual image path you want to test image_path = 'H_L_.jpg' Read and preprocess the image image ...

Challenge idea taken from: Eliseo D'Annunzio Task Provide code that evaluates to 0.5 numerically, i.e. the output must be recognized by your chosen language as a numeric value (Number, float, dou...

Your goal is to reverse an ascii string. Given a (optionally newline or null terminated) input, output your input in reverse order, optionally followed by a newline. Terminate afterward. Function...

At my job we have to sometimes lay out materials. Materials come in large long rolls and are cut into smaller pieces when being laid out. When we order the rolls we draw up a layout document which...

Given a sequence of lower case letters, sort them into order of height. Heights The heights of letters are dependent on font, so for this challenge the height order to be used is as defined below...

Given a hinged tetromino, give it a unique, consistent label independent of location, rotation, and reflection. Tetrominoes A tetromino is a connected subset of the square tiling, composed of 4 s...

Given a number $n \geq 3$ as input output the smallest number $k$ such that the modular residues of $k$ by the first $n$ primes is exactly $\{-1,0,1\}$. That is there is a prime in the first $n$ p...

The probability of rolling every number from 1 to 6 with $N$ six-sided dice. Input A positive integer $N$. Your code must work for inputs up to and including 10, but may crash, error, or give ...

You roll $N$ six-sided dice simultaneously. Your score is the highest number rolled. If you play this game many times, what is the expected value (mean) of your score? Input A positive integer ...

Challenge This is a simple randomness challenge: Given a non-negative integer $n$, and positive integer $m$, simulate rolling and summing the results of $n$ fair dice, each of which have $m$ sides...

Given two binary strings $A$ and $B$ such that $A$ is an anagram of $B$, output a third binary string $S$ such that both $A$ and $B$ can be created by iterated removals of the substring $10101$ fro...

Task Given a list of numbers $X$ produce a second list of numbers $Y$ such that $Y_i$ is the length of the longest common prefix of $X$ and $X$ with the first $i$ elements removed. For example if...

Challenge Given an array of numbers return the cumulative count of each item. This is the number of times an item has occurred so far. Examples [1,1,2,2,2,1,1,1,3,3] -> [1,2,1,2,3,3,4,5,1,2]...

In this challenge you will take a number $n$ and a string $X$ of length $\geq n$, and produce a regular expression which matches all strings that are withing $n$ character substitutions of $X$. Sp...

Task You are going to take three strings as input $A$, $B$ and $X$. And your goal is to determine if there exists a third string $S$ such that both $A$ and $B$ can be formed by iteratively removin...

You are a low-level censor working for the Ministry of Media Accuracy. Part of your job is to make sure that certain words don't appear in publications. Every morning you get a fresh stack of next...

Connect opposite corners of a rectangle of characters without putting 4 characters in a row. Input Two numbers, W and H, representing the width and height of the rectangle Each number will be ...

An $n$-polyomino is a connected subset of the square tiling consisting of $n$ squares. We will not require that polyominos be simply connected, that is they can have holes. We will say a $n$-polyo...

An polyomino is a non-empty connected subset of the square tiling consisting of squares joined along their edges. We will not require that polyominos be simply connected, that is they can have hole...

Challenge A simple challenge: Given a two-dimensional matrix (an array of arrays) of real numbers, compute the determinant. The determinant of a matrix is a mathematical construct used in many ap...

The problem Someone has created an encoding format for square bit matrices, however they have found it isn't perfect! One encoding may not decode to exactly one matrix, or it may not even be possi...

This is a fixed output challenge. Output a textual representation of a chessboard hosting 8 queens, none of which are attacking each other. There are 92 ways of arranging them, 12 if rotations and...

Given a sequence of letters, omit those with the highest or lowest pop count. Terminology The pop count or population count of a binary string is the number of 1s in it. For this challenge, the ...

Given a string, convert all of its letters using ROT13, and all of its digits using ROT5. This is sometimes referred to as ROT13.5. Input A sequence of printable ASCII characters (character cod...